Water – The King of all Drinks!

Water – The king of all drinks!

Water – The king of all drinks! You can`t live without it! what makes it so beneficial? other drinks may be way more appealing, but nothing offers the same benefits to your body as good old water, and that’s a fact! And speaking of which, here are the facts.

The facts and benefits of water

Helps keep body fluids balanced – Did you know that your body weight is approximately 60 percent water? Your body uses water in all its cells, organs, and tissues to help regulate its temperature and maintain other bodily functions.

Because your body loses water through breathing, sweating, and digestion, it’s important to re-hydrate by drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water. The amount you need depends on a variety of factors, including the climate you live in, how physically active you are, and whether you’re experiencing an illness or have any other health problems.

Protects tissues, spinal cord, and joints – Water does more than just quench your thirst and regulate your body’s temperature; it also keeps the tissues in your body moist. You know how it feels when your eyes, nose, or mouth gets dry? Keeping your body hydrated helps it retain optimum levels of moisture in these sensitive areas, as well as in the blood, bones, and the brain. In addition, it helps protect the spinal cord, and it acts as a lubricant and cushion for your joints.

Helps your body remove waste – Adequate water intake enables your body to excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation. The kidneys and liver use it to help flush out waste, as do your intestines. Water can also keep you from getting constipated by softening your stools and helping move the food you’ve eaten through your intestinal tract. However, it should be noted that there is no evidence to prove that increasing your fluid intake will cure constipation.

Aids in digestion – Digestion starts with saliva, the basis of which is water. Digestion relies on enzymes that are found in saliva to help break down food and liquid and to dissolve minerals and other nutrients. Proper digestion makes minerals and nutrients more accessible to the body. Water is also necessary to help you digest soluble fiber. With the help of water, this fiber dissolves easily and benefits your bowel health by making well-formed, soft stools that are easy to pass.

Prevents you from becoming dehydrated – Your body loses fluids when you engage in vigorous exercise, sweat in high heat, or come down with a fever or contract an illness that causes vomiting or diarrhea. If you’re losing fluids for any of these reasons, it’s important to increase your fluid intake so that you can restore your body’s natural hydration levels.

Your doctor may also recommend that you drink more fluids to help treat other health conditions, like bladder infections and urinary tract stones. If you’re pregnant or nursing, you may want to consult with your physician about your fluid intake because your body will be using more fluids than usual, especially if you’re breastfeeding.

Helps control calories – For years, dieters have been drinking lots of water as a weight loss strategy. While water doesn’t have any magical effect on weight loss, substituting it for higher calorie beverages can certainly help. Food with high water content tends to look larger, its higher volume requires more chewing, and it is absorbed more slowly by the body, which helps you feel full. Water-rich foods include fruits, vegetables, broth-based soups, oatmeal, and beans.

Helps energize muscles – Cells that don’t maintain their balance of fluids and electrolytes shrivel, which can result in muscle fatigue. When muscle cells don’t have adequate fluids, they don’t work as well, and performance can suffer. Drinking enough fluids is important when exercising. Follow the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for fluid intake before and during physical activity.

These guidelines recommend that people drink about 17 ounces of fluid about two hours before exercise. During exercise, they recommend that people start drinking fluids early, and drink them at regular intervals to replace fluids lost by sweating.

Helps your kidneys – Body fluids transport waste products in and out of cells. The main toxin in the body is blood urea nitrogen, a water-soluble waste that can pass through the kidneys to be excreted in the urine. Your kidneys do an amazing job of cleansing and ridding your body of toxins if your intake of fluids is adequate.

When you’re getting enough fluids, urine flows freely, is light in color and free of odor. When your body is not getting enough fluids, urine concentration, color, and odor increases because the kidneys trap extra fluid for bodily functions. If you chronically drink too little, you may be at higher risk for kidney stones, especially in warm climates.

Helps keep your skin looking good – Your skin contains plenty of water, and functions as a protective barrier to prevent excess fluid loss. Dehydration makes your skin look drier and more wrinkled, which can be improved with proper hydration, but once you are adequately hydrated, the kidneys take over and excrete excess fluids. You can also help “lock” moisture into your skin by using moisturizer, which creates a physical barrier to keep moisture in.

How much do you need? – Many individuals meet their daily hydration needs by simply drinking water when they’re thirsty, according to a report on nutrient recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies.

In fact, most people who are in good physical health get enough fluids by drinking water and other beverages when they’re thirsty, and also by drinking a beverage with each of their meals, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. If you’re not sure about your hydration level, look at your urine. If it’s clear, you’re in good shape. If it’s dark, you’re probably dehydrated.

Adequate intake helps every cell and organ to function properly. Your body is about 60 percent water. Your blood is more than 80 percent water and requires water to make healthy new blood cells. Your bones are more than 50 percent water and, you guessed it, need water to make healthy new bone cells.

Helps maintain normal bowel function. Adequate hydration keeps things flowing along your gastrointestinal tract and prevents constipation. In addition, water helps to eliminate wastes and toxins from your body through the lymphatic system, kidneys, and intestines.

Can help reduce and prevent pain. Water lubricates your joints, helps reduce joint pain, and protects your joints against wear and tear.

Regulates your metabolism. Water plays an important role converting the food you eat into energy. Also, your brain can confuse hunger with dehydration. So, before you snack, try a glass of water.

Balances body temperature. You lose water through perspiration, which dissipates excess heat and cools your body.

Drinking fluids and eating foods that contain water rehydrates you. Eating colorful, raw fruits and vegetables provides your cells with structured water. This structured water stays in your system long enough to nourish and hydrate cells, and, as a bonus, these sources of water are also rich in cell-protecting antioxidants and health-enhancing fiber.

Benefits your mental health and brain function. Researchers from Tufts University say that even mild dehydration is associated with feelings of anger, depression, and confusion. In addition, water helps to ensure adequate electrical functioning, allowing your brain and nervous system to function properly.


Personally, i have never had an issue with drinking water, but i hear many clients saying how they can`t stand it! Whether you like it or not, there`s no getting away from the fact, we need water to survive! Water – The king of all drinks! other drinks may be way more appealing, but nothing offers the same benefits to your body as good old water, and that’s a fact!


Fighting For Your Life Isn’t a Sport!


Fighting for your life isn’t a sport!

Fighting for your life isn’t a sport!  With regard to personal safety, regretfully there may be more and more places around the world where not all people are welcome and could be in danger if they enter. Now, the risk of being personally attacked may be low.

However, if you ever were attacked and experienced a physical assault from someone determined to gravely injure or kill, do you have a plan to protect yourself? Check out these basic self-defense tips that could come in handy.

Fighting For Your Life isn’t a Sport

Unlike boxing or other martial arts, there are no rules to follow when fighting for your life except to stay alive. Let the lawyers sort it out after you’re safe. Fear and a lack of education and training are common among victims on the losing end of an assault. When you combine the same fear with even a little knowledge on what to do, successfully fighting for your life is a more realistic option.

Basic Defensive Body Weapons

There are many actions that practically eliminate the chances you would ever have to fight for your life using only the tools that God has given you. Avoiding danger based on knowing what’s going on around you are always the best option.

Maintaining a good situational awareness and following your intuition are probably the most effective tools you have. Many people also have a second line of defense should the situation surprise them, and that is a personal defensive weapon such as non-lethal or lethal tools. Pepper spray, tasers, knives, and guns fall into these categories. But there are times when we are completely unarmed.

Voice & Noise

Reasoning with an attacker generally doesn’t work. Usually an attack will be made as an ambush or a surprise. If not, or if you are able to react after the initial assault, try yelling “NO” to stop further attacks.  If the assailant is acting under the influence of rage, it may break through the haze according to some sources. Further, don’t be embarrassed to yell and scream for help or specifically, to yell “FIRE” as loud as you can.

It’s reported that people will respond to shouts of fire quicker than to screams of help, rape, or police. If possible, push the alarm button on your car keys if you can get the horn to sound. Be loud and make noise.

Hands and Fingernails

The heel of your palm rather than your fist is a very effective weapon. It’s usually better to use a palm strike rather than your fist to hit an attacker in the face or head. It will do more damage to the attacker and avoid breaking small finger bones of the attacked. 

To use your palm as a weapon, attempt to jam the heel of your hand into the base of the nose or jaw of the attacker and then forcefully drag downward with your fingernails after the strike. Also, attempt to push or scratch your nails into or across the eyes of the attacker. Ramming the base of the nose can be a deadly punch, especially when delivered from a shorter person upwards into a taller person’s nose.

Done correctly with enough force, this type of strike can send the nasal bones into the brain, killing the person immediately. Obviously, this is not a technique you would use unless you feared that you were in danger of grievous bodily harm or death.

An alternate option of the palm strike described above is to drive the Y, formed between your thumb and forefinger, into the throat of the attacker. Attempt to ram the larynx (Adam’s Apple) as hard as you can. Also, use the side of your hand, karate-chop style, to hit down onto the side of the neck or collarbone areas. 

Additionally, an open-handed slap against the ears can rupture the eardrums causing great pain and disorientation. Using your hand shaped into a fist can be effective and if you strike with the meaty side of your fist (opposite the thumb) you can still avoid injury to your finger bones or knuckles.

If you can’t reach the face and head, focus your punches, scratches, squeezes or pinches on the groin area if possible.

Elbows and Knees

Your elbow and knee can deliver a devastating blow from up close. When using your elbow, twist your body into the blow and try to use all your leg strength when raising your knee into your target. If possible, target the temple or side of the head for elbow strikes.

Continue striking and if possible, jam your elbow into the nose or throat areas while continuing to deliver a flurry of follow-up punches. If you can grab the attacker by the head or neck, attempt to pull the head down while raising your knee up into the face.


If you are being attacked, a hard kick to the groin area can be very painful to the attacker. Remember that you can kick not only while standing up, but also when you’re lying on the ground. Usually your legs are your strongest muscle group, so you can kick as well as push a lot of weight off or away from you. If you’re held too close to the attacker to kick, try to stomp the feet of the attacker. A hard stomp to the top of the foot or the arch can cause serious injury and pain, especially if you’re wearing shoes with a stiletto-type of heel.

Head and Mouth

If you are being held or otherwise unable to use your arms and legs to fight, you may be able to use your head and teeth. Swinging your forehead or the back of your head into your assailant’s face and nose can be useful as a way to break free. It may also be painful or dangerous to you, so don’t trade forehead hits!

Don’t hesitate to use your bite as a weapon. Bite the side of the neck, the face, even the groin area in an attempt to do as much damage as possible in order to get away from your attacker.

Fight Until You Can Escape

Continue hitting in a flurry of strikes rather than trying to make just one hit. Surprisingly, even in a fight, many untrained people will hold back and not use full strength when striking another person.

If you are fighting for your life, hit your attacker as hard as you can. If you disable your attacker to the point where he is disoriented and no longer fighting, consider the situation for your next step. Think about almost every horror movie you’ve seen. Just when the monster was thought to be dead, it comes back to life. Fighting for your life isn’t a sport!

In this type of event, you should ensure that you, as well as anyone you’re defending, have the ability to get away from danger successfully. This may mean that if your attacker is only temporarily dazed, you may need to put a final strike or two on a vital area in order to make sure the threat is effectively eliminated as you escape the situation.

Personal Safety Tips

If it looks like a duck, swims like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it probably is a duck. That’s an example of inductive reasoning, and criminals use this to help them select targets of opportunity. Modify this old saying to look for a victim or “mark” and you get the idea. If he or she looks and acts like an easy target, then it’s probably true.

Body language is a great communication tool and many times you may not even be aware of what you are saying. Body language and situational awareness are the two primary components in basic personal safety awareness and should be part of your plan to be safe.

Body Language

Body language is a non-verbal form of communicating feelings, intentions, or thoughts through physical actions such as facial expressions or eye movements, actions or positions of the body, arms and hands, even the amount of space a person keeps around or between other people.

Situational Awareness

Simply put, situational awareness is being aware of your surroundings. More specifically, in the context of personal safety tips, it refers to a mindset that allows a person to notice potential threat scenarios in time to react accordingly.

Appear to be a Hard Target

With a proper combination of body language and situational awareness, most people can move throughout their daily activities without attracting unwanted attention from the criminal element.  An example of this would be to use body language to display a focused and decisive motion in your walking technique.

By keeping your head up and eyes scanning the area, you will appear to be in charge of your actions, not just wandering from one spot to another. By simultaneously using appropriate situational awareness safety tips, you’ll see who is near and what they are doing.

Most of the time a criminal will pass on someone who looks like they might be trouble. However, there are some situations that appearances alone won’t deter an unwanted event. Should a situation occur, attempt to avoid it and if that’s not possible, do everything you can to control the outcome.

Be Aware and Scan the Area

Realize that certain scenarios are riskier than others. For example, when returning to a parked vehicle, always raise your level of awareness a notch or two. Scan the area around your vehicle and look for people or vehicles that are suspicious. Don’t hesitate to leave the area and ask for security to escort you to the vehicle if you feel something is amiss. At the very least, you may want to return in a few minutes to see if the situation has resolved itself.

Fight Back

Fighting for your life isn’t a sport! If you are attacked, fight back and try to run away. Scream and yell, as you attempt to get loose and attract attention. Don’t be embarrassed to make a scene since a little embarrassment is much more preferable than becoming a casualty of street crime.

When it comes to personal security, use body language and situational awareness to look like the person a criminal wants to avoid. If despite your efforts you are attacked, do what you can to get free and move immediately towards safety. You are worth the fight it may take to save yourself.


All of this might sound really scary, and in theory, this type of defensive action may open you up to future litigation. But, when you are in a life-threatening situation, think about the old saying, that it’s better to be judged by twelve than carried by six.

If you’re attacked and you believe you are going to be raped or murdered, or that your children are also in danger, you have a right and obligation to protect yourself by any means available.

Remember, if you are not armed with a weapon and all your other personal safety measures have failed, fight with what you have and fight like your life depends on it, as it might well. Fighting for your life isn’t a sport!Fighting For Your Life is Not a Sport

 Stay safe.

Avoid Getting Obsessed With the Scales!

Avoid Getting Obsessed With the Scales!

Avoid getting obsessed with the scales! It`s just a number and doesn’t give an accurate reading regarding how you are doing and feeling in the gym, if anything, it will have unmotivated you. Classic example is why your weight isn’t going down but your pant/dress size is, a topic we`ll explain later in this blog.

The scale is not your friend! Ditch the scales! They’re not helping you. One of the things I did not like when I used to train clients at the gym, was when they would constantly go over to the scale to see what they weighed. Mostly this would be after each workout, but even some would go during a workout! Like they wanted to see a 2 lb drop to keep them going on the treadmill?

The scale is not your friend!

I’m here to give you permission to THROW YOUR SCALE OUT! Yep, you heard me correctly.

Toss it! Ditch it. Give it to a neighbor. Or put it in the trash bin. Just get it out of the house. Not tomorrow…today! Ditch the Scales! Avoid getting obsessed with the scales! They’re not helping you.

Let’s get real. Do you honestly know if you are losing fat? How about just water weight fluctuation? Your body is roughly about 60% water after all.

Ever wonder where all the quick weight loss comes in the first 7-10 days on some strict diet? Mostly water, not fat.

Emotional Highs and Lows

With every emotional “high”, there is always a low period to come (as that high never is sustainable in the long run).

Imagine one week you feel great with a 3-5lb weight loss, only to somehow gain back 1-2lbs the next week. It could have been water weight, but you really don’t know. However, are you still riding the high from the first week or are you now upset/depressed?

I even had some clients in the past who were upset because they initially had little “weight” loss, but yet their clothes were lose fitting! Even after trying to explain that they can lose fat and gain muscle, they were still attached to a number. They were upset yet they knew they looked and felt better! Avoid getting obsessed with the scales!

How silly is it to have your emotional well-being connected to some number? It is one thing to lose 30+ lbs over a year and know it, but to keep stepping on a scale seeing if you are 1-2 lbs up or down day after day is just being obsessive.

Does that mean you should get a scale with a bodyfat analyzer? No, as that is a 2-for-1 obsession now! Not only can you stress over your weight, but you can also get upset at some bodyfat % number that is no way accurate with those scales.

Ditch the scales! And drop the mental baggage, or you will carry it with you for a very long time. I have seen so many people (even other trainers) in great shape obsessed with what they weighed. Most people would pay anything to look like them, yet they are depressed and unhappy. All because of some number.

We all like to see progress, right? I get that as it can be motivating. But can you tell me that you can’t notice an improvement in body composition through how your clothes are fitting? Jeans not so tight anymore? How about just by looking in the mirror? What about by your daily energy, performance, or strength gains? Why not use those instead?

Pant/dress size dropping, but not weight? Today`s blog answers a very common issue. In all my years of personal training, one question arose more than any other, actually, much more than any other. Why am I not losing weight? But my pant/dress size is getting smaller.

Many clients get mad at this issue and become frustrated and many even quit thinking they’re wasting their money, and of course they’re also thinking their trainers doesn’t know what they’re doing. Which is usually not the case at all.

Ditch the scales!

Yes, that’s right, ditch the scales! First, Avoid getting obsessed with the scales! do not get caught up with this obsession every time you walk into the bathroom!

Many people see the scales as an instrument of motivation, but they can be exactly the opposite. Your weight can fluctuate considerably during the day, when you consider the water you drank and the food you ate. Weigh yourself soon as you get up in a morning, this will give you a true reading, but you don’t need to do it every day or multiple times daily.

For a start the number on the scale includes everything like muscle, organs, bones, food and water and fat. So, for that reason the number on the scale might not show what you’re hoping to see. It doesn’t reflect the changes happening in your body; for example, if you’re doing cardio and strength training, you may build lean muscle at the same time you’re losing body fat. In that case, the scale may not change even though you’re getting leaner. Basically, the scale cannot tell the difference between fat and muscle and combines all into one number.

Remember, if you step on the scale and you’re unhappy with what you see, how does that make you feel? It may make you start questioning everything you’re doing, wondering why you even bother at all. Focusing on weight may overshadow the positive results you’re getting such as fat loss, more endurance, higher energy levels, and now wearing smaller clothes.

Give the scales a break, go by what clothes you are now wearing, if you’re dropping clothes size you must be doing something correct, right? The training program and diet are working, the smaller sized clothes aren’t an illusion, it’s a fact, and its working!

Don’t allow the scales to distract you from the good you are doing. Make sure you get a scale that also measures body fat, don’t just go by what it says you weigh.

Basically, the scales can be the ultimate in frustration, losing motivation and quitting on your exercise plan and weight-loss goals.

Which is heavier, 5lb of feathers or 5lb of iron?

I used to ask my clients what’s heavier? 5lb of feathers or 5lb of iron? So many would say iron not really thinking about what the question actually asked. Any two things that weigh the same obviously do weigh the same, the size however, is totally different like 5lb of fat is much larger than 5lb of muscle in volume.

During the road to weight loss your body goes through a transition and it takes time, focus on all the positive aspects you are seeing and experiencing along that road. Do not be a victim of the scales, think of them like this; they can be like a bad friend who never seems to compliment you.

Problem solved!

So, now you know how replacing body fat with muscle can make you lose pant/dress size but not necessarily actual body weight, and remember, ditch the scales! The scale is not your friend!

Self-Defense Knowledge is the Key to Survival!

Self-Defense Knowledge is the Key to Survival!

Self-Defense Knowledge is the Key to Survival! One thing for sure though, if you know a little self-defense your chances of survival are much higher whatever situation you might find yourself in.

Let`s take a look at several instances where Self-defense knowledge is the key to survival and might just save your life!

Hostage taking, kidnappings and abductions

There is a subtle but important difference between an abduction and a kidnapping. An abduction involves moving a person from one location to another against their will – maybe to sexually assault them, make them withdraw money from an ATM (in the case of children it can be an ex-partner abducting children who they have failed to gain custody of, etc.).

In a kidnapping, a person is taken in order to obtain a ransom – somebody can also be taken hostage for the same reason, but hostages can also be taken to have other demands met. Understanding if you are the target of an abduction, a kidnapping, or a hostage situation is important as your behaviors and actions in each situation should differ accordingly.

Hostage Scenarios

People often think that the only individuals who get taken hostage are political figures and the rich and famous (along with “groups” such as airline passengers – it is worth noting that violence which targets an individual is largely predictable, whilst violence that targets a group is not).

The truth is that the majority of victims taken hostage are ordinary individuals; usually by an ex-partner who is looking for revenge, or the court to change a decision made against them, or by a criminal who panics whilst committing a particular crime, and takes somebody from that crime scene, in order to facilitate their escape. Self-defense knowledge is the key to survival!

Most hostage-takers have no clear idea of what demands they want met (this is different if abducted abroad); they are often in such an emotional state, either through anger, fear or panic (or a mix of the three), that their reasoning abilities have become impaired to such a degree that they’re unable to make clear or rational decisions.

Often, a hostage negotiator and/or possibly the hostage, will need to help them understand and define what they want to, or can, achieve through their actions, in a way that will not harm the hostage.

If you have been taken hostage, you should try to find out what your assailant’s grievance(s) and/or demands are. Even if you don’t agree with the reason your assailant has taken you hostage, you should acknowledge their anger and perceived injustice.

People turn to violence because they believe they have no alternative; if you are able to present another alternative and outcome to your assailant, rather than the actions they have taken and outcome they may imagine, you will start to increase your survival chances.

You should present an air of optimism on behalf of your assailant; if they believe that they are going to achieve their goals (the ones you present or reinforce) they are less likely to become depressed and fearful and resort to taking drastic action. Don’t give away information that could be used against you, such as personal information about yourself or friends or family – all of this can be used as leverage against you, for example, your captors could threaten to harm family members, etc.

This information could also be used to put emotional pressure on you, such as telling you that you need to behave in a certain way if you’re ever to see a certain family member again.

When you talk to your captor(s), be civil and polite; avoid complaining. Your captor(s) will be under their own emotional pressure.

This doesn’t mean you should sympathize with them, but rather understand that they may be in an emotionally fragile state, as they lose confidence in their plan and start to doubt it will lead to a favorable outcome for them. Aim to build up some rapport with your captor(s); the more they can see you as a person, an individual, and not simply a tool for them to achieve what they want, the more likely they are to consider your comfort level(s), and less likely to harm you.

It is also worth trying to discover what they know about you, and if the information they have regarding you is accurate. The more information you have about your captors, the greater your ability will be to respond to them in a way that will ensure your survival.

If you are being held captive for a period of time (e.g. this is not a home invasion or burglary which the police have interrupted and you are in the middle of a stand-off etc.), develop a routine.

This should involve some form of exercise program (use bodyweight exercises – even simple isometrics and/or tensing and relaxing the muscles will help you stay in some form of physical shape).

Also, take the time to understand the routine of your captor(s). You need to stay in good physical and mental shape so as to be able to take advantage of any escape opportunities that may present themselves. Understanding your captor’s routines and movements may give you an idea as to the times their guard may be down.

You should only attempt escape if you are sure of success. Hostage taking episodes are normally resolved by skilled negotiators who manage the safe release of captives, who by and large come away physically unharmed.

Your best chance of coming out of a hostage situation successfully, is by having professionals negotiate your release (that said, if a good, solid escape opportunity presents itself, you should seriously consider taking it).

You have been taken hostage in order for your captor(s) to have something of value to bargain with. You should be aware that as a negotiation takes place, security agencies will be planning a physical response if these negotiations should fail. Both negotiating and planning/preparation for a physical solution takes time and will also possibly see your captor(s) being put under a lot of stress and duress, as they start to realize their position.

Remaining calm, and not adding to your captor’s stresses, is necessary in such situations, as you want them to respond to the negotiations rationally, rather than emotionally. If they don’t feel pressured or rushed into acting, the negotiating team, and security agencies will have more time to prepare and put into place their plans – which may involve a physical confrontation with your captors, in order to secure your release.

Your best chance of escape is often in the first instance that an assailant(s) tries to take you. Kidnappings and Abductions, and some forms of Hostage Taking involve you being moved from a primary location to a secondary one – somebody can take you hostage in your own home, or remain at a crime scene without moving you, so not all hostage scenarios will see you being moved.

Your best chance of escape is often in the first moment, the further you are moved away from your primary location, the less likely you are to be able to escape. Your abductor wants to remove you from that location because it represents your best escape opportunity – they want to move you from a place which is favorable to you, to one which favors them.

In the initial moments of an abduction, when a hostage taker, kidnapper or similar attempts to remove you from your location, they will be at their least prepared and ready, suffering from nervousness and the negative effects of adrenaline; the further along they get in their plan, the more confident they will become, and the more in control they will feel.

If they are abducting you, then you have worth to them, and they are unlikely to kill or overly harm you, unless that was the end-goal of the abduction – in which case it is much better to deal with them when you are in a location which is not of your assailant’s choosing (i.e. your primary location).

It is always worth remembering that a hostage-taker or kidnapper wants to take you alive, as you only have worth to them if you are alive.

Once you have been abducted, you may be beaten, to take any fight or thoughts of escape away from you – your assailant may use the threat of further beatings to force compliance; if you are presented with a solid escape opportunity, one which is likely to be successful, you should take it and ignore the threat(s) they have made; if an abductor beats you either as part of the abduction or during it, it is likely that you will sustain further beatings as a matter of course, throughout your captivity.

You may also be drugged so as to make you unaware of what is going on and to reduce your ability to function and recognize escape opportunities.


A kidnapping involves you being abducted and held for a ransom. If the kidnapping is conducted and orchestrated by a group, it is likely that someone will be with you or near you, all the time.

If the kidnapping is committed by one individual then they will have to leave you at times, so as to engage in the other parts of the crime, such as negotiating with the authorities, or those they are making their demands to.

Take this time to yourself, or any time you get, and keep your mind active. If you have formed some form of bond with your abductor, don’t be afraid to ask for things that could make you more comfortable and ensure your physical and mental health.

One phenomenon that can occur during kidnapping and hostage scenarios is “Stockholm Syndrome”, a form of traumatic bonding, where the victim of the abduction starts to feel sympathy for their captor or captors. This may go so far as refusing opportunities of escape and even thwarting the attempts of those who try to rescue them.

There are a number of competing theories as to why this can occur and it is not my intention to examine every theory but suffice to say, don’t start to see your abductor as the person who is responsible for keeping you alive.

Many victims of abductions can start to see their captor as the only reason that they are still alive and start to form an emotional attachment to them because of this.


A straight abduction could see you being taken captive in order to be forced into slavery and prostitution, or even to be murdered. Your captor could be an ex-partner or stalker who simply wants to have you with them in an indefinite sense, or a stranger criminal who wants to take you round to ATM’s and banks to withdraw money for them – this could even be money you owe them (this still constitutes an abduction).

When anyone wants to move you from a primary location to a secondary one, you should refuse. If they tell you, you that they have a family member held hostage or that they will hurt someone if you don’t, you should not compromise your safety, and your ability to alert the authorities and get help and assistance to that person.

If they are capable of doing these things to someone else, they are more than capable of doing them to you both. A kidnapper demanding money does not want to bring undue attention to themselves by taking another person – a witness to their crime – hostage, when it is far easier to simply demand the money remotely.


Self-defense knowledge is the key to survival! A mugging or street robbery is a very different proposition to an abduction, whether it be a hostage or kidnapping situation, or involve some other motive.

When somebody demands something from you with the threat of violence, and they have the means to enforce their demands – either through weight of numbers, physical size and ability, or a weapon – then the only way to avoid a physical confrontation is to comply.

If a predator wants you i.e. to move from one location to another, compliance should be the last thought on your mind. Now is the time to get away, to make distance and put obstacles and barriers between you and your assailant.

It has to be acknowledged that every situation is different, however trying to escape at the moment of the abduction is, on the whole, the most advisable thing to do. Every time you fail to take an escape opportunity, you will be more likely to ignore, or talk yourself out of, the next one.

Every time you don’t act and nothing bad or harmful happens to you, you are reinforcing the idea that inaction doesn’t cause you harm, and that if you are not experiencing pain, etc., you are surviving, and everything is alright.

If you miss an opportunity, look for the next – keep your mind in this survival mode. Once you are held captive, keep yourself physically and mentally active, and only act when you can be sure that your escape is likely to be successful, or that your captors are planning to dispose of you.

The chances are you won’t find yourself in one of these situations, but it can and does happen, Self-defense knowledge is the key to survival! so learn self-defense today and increase your chances of survival!

Gyms Aren’t Always the Cleanest Places!

Gyms aren’t always the cleanest places!

Gyms aren’t always the cleanest places! Let`s face it, it’s a fact! For a place that’s supposed to be healthy, they can be some of the dirtiest places around. Now, I’m not saying all gyms are like this, they aren’t, but many are. I should know. I had firsthand experience a few years ago that nearly took my life!

My experience regarding dirty gyms

Gyms aren’t always the cleanest places! The terrible experience I had regarding this issue was at a popular gym, not one of the biggest gym chains, but a popular one, obviously, I’m not going to name and shame them in this blog for obvious reasons.

The gym in question was well known for not picking trash up or cleaning restrooms, but it was cheap and just down the road from me, so the bad things were overlooked for the price and convenience. Not the wisest choice I must admit looking back.

A great workout to start the day

A few years ago, I was feeling fine and had my usual early morning workout which at the time was my best of the year! I left the gym feeling on top of the world. Little did I know what was to come later the next few days though.

As the day went on, I started feeling not too well, at first, I thought it was flu with hot and sweaty symptoms. I left work early and went to bed only to awake pouring with sweat! And I mean pouring, the bed sheets were drenched!

After this marathon sweating session, I actually felt somewhat better. It was my wife`s birthday weekend and we had a special weekend planned out of town, after convincing her I was ok to go, we set off and I felt reasonably ok.

Each day got progressively worse, and I knew something was seriously wrong.

Straight to my doctor, after running the usual tests at the doctor`s they confirmed it wasn’t flu, actually, they could only tell me what it wasn’t, but couldn’t tell me what it was. The doctor looked horrified and sent me to the emergency room at the local hospital.

An unknown mysterious virus

The hospital gave me high doses of steroids and antibiotics but were unable to diagnose what exactly I had caught and put it under the label of an unknown mysterious virus.

After a few weeks I recovered slowly, but it left me feeling weak, tired and quite often my blood sugar would suddenly drop without warning. Anyone who has experienced this, will I’m sure agree it is a very scary feeling indeed.

Anyway, to cut a long story short I almost died from this! But I didn’t, and now fully recovered, thankfully. Even though I can’t prove it, I know for sure this was something I caught at that gym. Gyms aren’t always the cleanest places! You can’t be too careful these days, especially now we`re in the grip of fear from the corona-virus.

Washing hands after working out

Respiratory viruses like coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread when mucus or droplets containing the virus get into your body through your eyes, nose or throat. Most often, this happens through your hands. Hands are also one of the most common ways that the virus spreads from one person to the next.

During a global pandemic, one of the cheapest, easiest, and most important ways to prevent the spread of a virus is to wash your hands frequently with soap and water.

Here’s everything you need to know about how to wash your hands the right way, it might seem a little obvious, but think about it; how many times do you see people leave the restroom without even thinking to wash their hands? It does happen a lot I’m sure you’ll agree, right?

How do I wash my hands properly?

To eliminate all traces of the virus on your hands, a quick scrub and a rinse won’t cut it. Below is a step-by-step process for effective handwashing.

  • Step 1: Wet hands with running water
  • Step 2: Apply enough soap to cover wet hands
  • Step 3: Scrub all surfaces of the hands – including back of hands, between fingers and under nails – for at least 20 seconds.
  • Step 4: Rinse thoroughly with running water
  • Step 5: Dry hands with a clean cloth or single-use towel

How long should I wash my hands for?

You should wash your hands for at least 20-30 seconds. An easy way to time it is by singing the full happy birthday song, twice.

The same goes for hand sanitizer: use a sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol and rub it into your hands for at least 20 seconds to ensure full coverage.

When should I wash my hands?

In the context of COVID-19 prevention, you should make sure to wash your hands at the following times:

  • After blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing
  • After visiting a public space, including public transportation, markets and places of worship
  • After touching surfaces outside of the home, including money
  • Before, during and after caring for a sick person
  • Before and after eating

In general, you should always wash your hands at the following times:

  • After using the toilet
  • Before and after eating
  • After handling garbage
  • After touching animals and pets
  • After changing babies’ diapers or helping children use the toilet
  • When your hands are visibly dirty 

How can I help my child wash his or her hands?

You can help children wash their hands by making handwashing easier for them, for instance, by setting up a stool so they can reach water and soap by themselves. You can make it fun for them by singing their favorite songs while you help them rub their hands.

Do I need to use warm water to wash my hands?

No, you can use any temperature of water to wash your hands. Cold water and warm water are equally effective at killing germs and viruses – as long as you use soap!

Do I need to dry my hands with a towel?

Germs spread more easily from wet skin than from dry skin, so drying your hands completely is an important step. Paper towels or clean cloths are the most effective way to remove germs without spreading them to other surfaces.

Which is better: washing your hands or using hand sanitizer?

In general, both handwashing with soap and water and hand sanitizer, when practiced/used correctly, are highly effective at killing most germs and pathogens. Hand sanitizer is often more convenient when you are outside of the home but can be expensive or difficult to find in emergency contexts. Also, alcohol-based hand sanitizer kills the coronavirus, but it does not kill all kinds of bacteria and viruses. For example, it is relatively ineffective against the norovirus and rotavirus.

What if I don’t have soap?

Using chlorinated water or hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 per cent alcohol are the best second options if you do not have soap and running water. In cases where these are not available, using soapy water or ash may help remove bacteria, though not as effectively. If these methods are used, it is important to wash your hands as soon as possible when you do have access to handwashing facilities and avoid contact with people and surfaces in the meantime.

How else can I help stop the spread of the corona-virus?

  • Use proper sneezing and coughing etiquette: Cover your mouth and nose with a flexed elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing, dispose of used tissue immediately, and wash your hands
  • Avoid touching your face (mouth, nose, eyes)
  • Practice social distancing: Avoiding shaking hands, hugging or kissing people, sharing food, utensils, cups and towels
  • Avoid close contact with anyone who has cold or flu-like symptoms
  • Seek medical care early if you or your child has a fever, cough or difficulty breathing
  • Clean surfaces that might have come in touch with the virus, and generally clean surfaces more frequently (especially in public spaces)


You can’t be too careful these days, especially now we`re in the grip of fear from the corona-virus. Gyms aren’t always the cleanest places! So be extra careful in or out of the gym. With a little thought we can all keep the germs away with simple and basic hygiene.

Bad Food Will do Bad Things to Your Mind and Body!

Bad Food Will do Bad Things to Your Mind and Body!

Bad food will do bad things to your mind and body! Bad diet is like a bad friend in the gym! There’s nothing worse than diligently committing to your workout routine only to see . . . zero results. Maybe you’re showing up to the gym day-in and day-out or pushing your body to its max every single time, only to wonder why you’re not feeling stronger or constantly suffering from a tweaked muscle. So, what gives? Well, it probably comes down to bad eating habits.

You already know some of the good habits related to a successful fitness plan: exercising consistently, eating healthy foods, drinking water, and so on. Conversely, bad habits waste your time and energy, and lead to poor training and minimal recovery.

You could get away with it when younger, but not these days!

Sure, you could eat whatever you wanted in high school and stay thin as a rail. But unfortunately, you’re not 17 anymore, and even if you work out around the clock, you can’t transform your body if you constantly give in to cravings, high-fat foods and sweet treats. The truth is, flat abs are made in the kitchen, and no amount of cardio and crunches can sculpt a sleek physique if you maintain an unhealthy diet.

Consume excess calories and you have to counterbalance them, and it’s hard to get enough exercise in to undo the calories you’ll get in a double cheeseburger with French fries and a milk shake.

Read on for reasons why aligning your nutrition plan with your exercise routine will help you get the body you want.

You’re not a professional athlete, so it`s OK to eat crap! Really?

If you justify frequent fried chicken or pasta dinners with the cardio workout on your schedule the following morning, you might want to recalculate your way of thinking, and how many calories you’re actually burning in comparison to the ones you’re taking in.

The majority of people are not serious athletes, meaning they don’t require the same type and amount of fuel as the professionals. Eating a calorically dense, high-carbohydrate meal or snack makes sense for a competitive cyclist about to endure a 100-mile road race, but it doesn’t make sense for someone who is about to take a two-mile jog around the block.

Instead, opt for a healthier form of chicken such as grilled or poached and save the spaghetti for a post-race meal. Yes, it’s OK to have a cheat meal here and there, but try not to make it a daily thing. And don’t bother justifying it with the excuse you’re not a professional athlete, so it`s OK to eat crap! Really?

You won’t be able to hit your peak

To effectively change your physique and stay toned requires intense exercise. You won’t have the physical endurance to push through tough workouts if your diet isn’t up to snuff. Yes, that unfortunately means that while candy and soda may give you a sugar high that you mistake as energy, they won’t fuel you to PR on the bench or around the track. Also, if you’re consuming high-fat foods in the evening, they could be disrupting your sleep– which will leave you too tired to go all out at the gym.

You’ll need a combination of carbohydrates and protein to recover following a workout, as well as adequate carbs beforehand, too. They’re the preferred energy for the exercisers’ muscles and mind

Watch out for taking in too much fat; that often translates to an abundance of calories as well, which quickly packs on as extra pounds. Another diet pitfall to avoid when training is extremely high amounts of carbs or fiber. These could cause annoying digestive issues and prevent you from performing well. In general, aim to get about 30 percent of your diet from protein, 40 percent from carbs and 30 percent from fat.

You won’t have the energy

Keep in mind that a diet you might think is healthy — one that’s super-low in carbs or calories — is just as harmful to your workout plan as one that’s high in fat. Bad food will do bad things to your mind and body! A very restrictive eating plan, paired with hardcore exercise, could leave you leaning on muscle mass for energy. Not getting enough fat (fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamins A and D, and essential fatty acids, like omega-3s, in particular), leaves you unable to produce energy and grow muscle because it lowers your levels of hormones like insulin and testosterone — which are important for building lean-body mass.

Additionally, maintaining a very restrictive diet for a prolonged period can lead to a reduction in muscle tissue and can decrease the ability of your skeletal muscles (the ones needed for lifting, walking and other forms of exercise) to perform well.

You won’t want to exercise

Unhealthy food choices, bad food will do bad things to your mind and body! — whether you’re eating too much fat, too many calories or not enough of either–may make you feel slow and less driven to exercise. Diet and exercise are a feedback loop. When you eat well, you are motivated to move, and when you move, you are more motivated to eat better. Consider, for instance, a low-carb, high-fat diet; it might not only weaken training adaptations and hinder performance but can also lead to you being less likely to want to get to the gym.

You won’t be able to tone your body

Having a hard time sculpting better butt or washboard abs? When you consume excess calories and can’t burn them all off solely from your workouts, they head right to these trouble zones. It’s dependent on your specific body type, but generally, women tend to gain weight in the hips and thighs, while men pack it on around their midsection. So even if you’ve gained muscle in these areas, it will be covered by a layer of fat. And abs exercises alone aren’t enough to decrease your body-fat percentage or abdominal fat, according to a study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.

Keeping your diet in check will help because to become truly toned, you’ll need to build muscle and burn more calories than you’re consuming at the same time. It’s easier to do so if you don’t treat yourself to fried food or ice cream in the first place.

You could get sick

Low-carb and low-fat diets can be mentally draining and have a negative impact on heart health, plus, a chronic low-carb diet may lead to micronutrient deficiencies and increased inflammation throughout the body, which both make you more susceptible to injury. Studies have found that not taking in an adequate amount of healthy fats may raise your chances for overuse injuries (such as stress fractures and tendonitis) and it doesn’t allow your body to protect itself in order to stay healthy. Furthermore, if you pair a low-fat diet with intense exercise, that can lower your immunity even further.


When you’re not eating whole foods, your workouts will not be as beneficial. If you’re eating simple carbs, processed foods, (i.e., sugar, sugar, sugar), then you’ll be working out harder, yet not seeing much improvement in the way you look and feel.

Eating whole foods such as vegetables, protein, fruits, and grains, to see improvements in muscle tone, growth, and strength. Eating healthy can help you avoid unnecessary weight gain, feelings of sluggishness, and even mood swings. When you feel your best, you can give your utmost effort to workouts.

Additionally, eating too few calories should be avoided. When your body is low on fuel, it conserves energy by taking your metabolism down a notch. Be mindful of the timing of your food choices too. Eating a big meal too close to your workout may cause you to experience cramps or nausea. A well-balanced diet with whole foods, minimal refined products, and a good mix of carbs, protein, and fat is key. Remember, Bad food will do bad things to your mind and body!

Helpful Advice for Beginners at the Gym

Helpful Advice for Beginners at the Gym

1)  Helpful Advice for Beginners at the Gym. Surround yourself as much as possible with people that understand your love of working out and agree with it, that’s not to say avoid people who don’t understand or don’t workout, but if your list of friends only consists of the latter you won’t find much support from them as they simply don’t understand the benefits you get from working out.

As a result the motivation required to get up early and workout simply won’t be there as readily as it would be if you surround yourself with like-minded gym friends. You are who you hang with, so beware negativity can rub off on you and possibly ruin what enthusiasm you have for working out.

2)  Find a training partner who is as serious about working out as you are, that way you will both encourage, motivate and help one another be accountable to keep showing up creating productive workouts, you are more likely to want to go knowing your trainer partner is depending on and expecting you to be there. If your training partner isn’t serious about it and sees your training times as nothing more than an excuse to socialize then neither of you will benefit and never achieve anything.

You can socialize after but try not to let your training sessions be used this way. Again, don’t look for excuses not to go. Obviously if you’re feeling unwell that’s an entirely different matter, but not to go because you simply can’t be bothered to make the effort to get out of bed is a complete waste of your time.

3)  If you’re a beginner with very little experience, the chances are you’ll soon get bored with your attempts at working out simply because the time in the gym will be a frustrating one not really knowing what to do for the best. The gym to a beginner can give an intimidating feeling of being lost in an iron jungle!

This is another great reason you might think about hiring a personal trainer, someone that knows what they’re doing and can design a program to best suit whatever your fitness needs are, also keeping your workouts and indeed your mind fresh and productive. Your time is valuable so don’t waste it struggling and wandering around lost in the iron jungle.

4)  Nowadays we seem to be a society where 90% of the population can’t function without a cell phone permanently attached to their hand! Unless you absolutely must workout listening to music from your cell phone why even bring it into the gym? If you’re worried about leaving it in your car or locker then at least turn it off. Working out to music is one thing, but if all you’re doing is constantly checking for texts it’s a huge distraction your mind doesn’t need.

If it`s early morning who would be texting you at that hour anyway? Your friends who don’t workout will still be asleep or getting ready for work and your early morning gym friends will be working out. After all, you’re most likely only going to be in the gym around one hour so give the cell phone a break, you can check your phone after your workout, but for the most part it’s just one more huge distraction your mind doesn’t need. Focus your mind on your workout, not the phone! 

5) Don’t get lost in the Iron jungle! The gym can be a lonely place, like a foreign land – almost like an iron jungle – if you’re not sure what you’re doing in there. Which is one of the main reasons people lose interest. After all, when you’re not seeing improvements it’s hard to keep motivated. Hire a personal trainer and don’t get lost in the iron jungle! It doesn’t have to be that way.

Consider hiring a certified personal trainer

Not a cheap service of course, but what price do you put on your health? Also, a very sensible and positive one as they’ll keep you accountable. Most trainers will get you to pay in advance and if you don’t show up you lose your money!

Before you think this is unfair just think of it this way, you are hiring the services of a professional who will keep you on track and get you to your goal, but if you aren’t serious about it you’re wasting their time and yours and of course your money, after all, it was you that asked for their help, they didn’t ask you. Would you like to be waiting on someone and they don’t show up? No, of course you wouldn’t. So bare that in mind before you commit to hiring a trainer. Bottom line is…you are expected to show up.

The Role of a Personal Trainer

The Role of a Personal Trainer. Personal trainers possess the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to design safe and effective fitness programs. They instruct and assist people in reaching personal health and fitness goals. Its good Helpful Advice for Beginners at the Gym.

When you are just starting out with an exercise program or you aren’t seeing results with your current routine, a personal trainer can give you the help you need. Knowing how you can benefit and whether it will be worth the expense can help you decide whether this is a good choice for you. Remember, If you’re healthy now that’s great, but you want to stay that way too. What price do you put on your health?

There are a number of reasons people work with trainers. Some want an individualized program so they can lose weight or get in shape while others simply need to be held accountable for their workouts. Wherever you are on your exercise journey, a personal trainer may be just what you need to finally reach your fitness and weight loss goals. is hiring a personal trainer right for you?

An investment in your future

What price do you put on your health? Personal training is investing in your future health. Thinking of hiring a personal trainer? Are you feeling like things you used to do with ease, are now not quite so easy? Feeling little aches and pains that were not there before? Out of breath just walking the dog around the block?

If any of the above relates to you and you want to do something about it, then a hiring a personal trainer might well be the solution.

Before you dismiss this thinking of `hiring a personal trainer is too expensive` think about this, what price do you put on your health? how expensive will it all get when your health is possibly on decline years from now, and you’re faced with medical bills when you’re then in no position to change things? Act now before it gets to that stage.


Is hiring a personal trainer right for you? From helping you reach your fitness goals to figuring out how to exercise safely with a chronic condition, there’s many reasons why hiring a personal trainer could be one of the best investments you’ll ever make in your overall health and well-being.

What price do you put on your health? Remember, don’t get lost in the Iron jungle! Make it a positive experience. Helpful Advice for Beginners at the Gym.

The Importance of Aerobic Training

The Importance of Aerobic Training.

The Importance of Aerobic Training. Aerobic training. Simply put, the word aerobics means “with oxygen” While this definition may sound quite vague, once you have a better understanding of what aerobics actually is, it will make more sense.

Achieving an “aerobic effect” can be defined as participating in a physical activity that elevates your heart rate to your target heart rate and maintains that level for a minimum of 20 consecutive minutes.

For example, an individual that performs a running routine that elevates their heart rate to their target heart rate for 20, or more, consecutive minutes will achieve an aerobic effect.

So Many Benefits

Increases cardio respiratory and cardiovascular system outputs • Strengthens heart • Decreases resting heart rate • Improves circulation by clearing out cholesterol buildup • Body adapts to burn fat as primary fuel source • Improves psychological disposition and reduces stress levels • Raises basal metabolic rate • Decreases blood pressure • Reduces LDL blood cholesterol level • Tones muscles • Improved balance and posture  • Increases Blood Oxygen level • Increases flexibility, reducing capability for injury.

Aerobic Training Exercise

The mechanics of aerobic training exercise require that oxygen be brought in by the lungs and transferred to the blood vessels.  Oxygen rich blood is then pumped by the heart to the muscles.  The muscles utilize oxygen for muscle contraction.  Through routine aerobic activity, the body becomes more efficient at processing oxygen.  Examples of aerobic activity include running, jogging, biking, rowing, walking.  In fact, any exercise that incorporates large muscle groups, raises the heart rate, breathing rate and body temperature is aerobic in nature. 

Weekly Requirements and Limitations

Fitness Level gains are determined by Frequency, Intensity and Duration of the Aerobic exercise. Each session (duration) should last from 20 to 60 minutes and be performed 3 to 5 days per week (frequency) at an intensity level measured by heart rate (60% – 90%) according to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM).  

During the first 15 minutes of aerobic activity, glycogen or sugar within the muscles is used for energy.  Fat metabolism for energy doesn’t occur until about 15 to 20 minutes after beginning aerobic activity.  This is why it’s important that aerobic duration be at least 30 minutes.  Aerobic sessions greater than 1 hour continue to burn fat but at not the same rate as during the first hour.  

Additionally, sessions greater than 1 hour increase the risk of injury due to fatigue.  Increasing aerobic frequency (greater than 5 times per week) does not give the body a chance to fully recover and can even reduce the body’s capability to defend itself against illness.  It is important to listen to what your body is trying to tell you.  Rest, adequate sleep, and proper diet all become more critical when demands are placed on our bodies above the normal everyday physical stress.

Diet Requirements

The type of fuel you put in a vehicle depends on the performance you expect out of it.  The same is true of our body.  Unlike weight training, aerobic training has two main goals.  The first is to improve cardiovascular performance, the second to burn fat.  Both of these goals can be realized during the same aerobic session.  

If the goal is to simply improve cardiovascular strength, then we need to target performance.  Like weight training, we want to consume a complex carbohydrate snack before aerobics.  A sugar snack will not provide the sustained energy and in fact may decrease performance. Excessive sugar intake before aerobic activity can work against the participant.  When large amounts of sugar are ingested, the pancreas must secrete insulin to metabolize the sugar.  Insulin levels in the blood inhibit the liver from metabolizing fat. Therefore, little or no fat burning takes place during exercise. This includes sugary drinks, i.e., sport drinks which, stay in the stomach much longer than ordinary cold water thereby inhibiting quick hydration.  Therefore, if the goal is to burn fat, then water only should be consumed before aerobics. 

In addition to their doctor’s recommendations – Eat a small, easily digestible snack (such as crackers) prior to exercise. • Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise to prevent dehydration. • Older populations lose their sensitivity to thirst and subsequently dehydrate easier. • Wear loose, comfortable clothes to avoid movement restrictions.

Types of Aerobic Activities

Anything that maintains the target heart rate 60% – 90% of the Maximum Heart Rate is considered aerobic.  If the heart rate is lower, then aerobic levels have not been reached.  If the heart rate is higher, then an anaerobic level has been reached.  During anaerobic exercise (sprinting) protein is being consumed and energy is being produced without the benefit of oxygen.

High intensity, high impact aerobics is not necessary to burn fat.  For example, running for 1-mile burns only 20% more fat than brisk walking for 1 mile.  It’s important to focus on the exercise and maintain the target heart rate.  Watching TV, reading books or other similar activity tends to distract the participant from monitoring the target heart rate.  Use music with sufficient beats per minute to intensify the exercise session (120 – 140 bpm). 

It is important to provide a period for cool-down. Abruptly stopping aerobic activity can cause blood pooling in your lower extremities or making you feel lightheaded.

Class Preparation for Trainers

Step height should be dependent on participant’s height and fitness level and familiarity with Step Aerobics.  Even athletes should limit the step height to the lowest possible height until the coordination is achieved on the step. Under no circumstances should the step height be high enough to require a 90 degree or greater flexion of the knee.  A maximum of 60 degrees is sufficient for all higher intensity levels.

Always ask if anyone is new to step. Keep a watchful eye on new people to insure their adherence to safety standards. They may not be aware of their limits yet. We all have a tendency to get complacent over time so always instruct participants in the proper technique, regardless if there are new people present or not. 

Instructors should be conscious of the fact that the class will try to follow your intensity level.  Therefore, if you use more than one-step riser, the class will follow even if they are not ready, it’s not really necessary to use more than one riser.  The additional stress on your shins, knees and ankles may manifest itself in time. Sometimes, you don’t get the chance to follow ACSM guidelines for alternate days of aerobic activity to heal properly.  Proper technique, enough sleep and proper diet are of utmost importance.

Before starting class make sure that all towels, weights or other items are stowed under the board or at the wall so as not to provide a hazard during class.  Ensure that each step participant has a minimum of 25 square feet of space.  In other words, a 5-foot by 5-foot area with the step positioned in the middle of this area.  

Begin with a progressive, limbering warm-up and stretch period followed by stepping with a tap up then basic step up moves. Progressively add arm and then leg changes. Observe the class’s response to cueing. This will give you an idea of the overall class experience level. Adjust the class accordingly. 

Face the class providing a mirror image of the moves.  During such maneuvers as turn step or over the top (not across the top), it may be less confusing to the class and therefore easier for them to follow if you face front. Remain flexible in your teaching style and use common sense guided by the participant’s perspective.

Intensity and Complexity

There is a misconception of what constitutes beginner, intermediate and advanced levels of aerobics.  Generally, people equate class level with choreographic complexity. It is physical exercise intensity level alone that determines class level and subsequently heart rate.  Complex moves, although fine for dance enthusiasts, can be defeating and demoralizing to most of the people who are trying to learn complex dance moves when they are really there to burn fat. 

Intensity can be better served by utilizing large muscle groups quantitatively.  Complex dance moves can be icing on the cake after the intensity level has been achieved by the aforementioned method. In many cases this may serve as a great cool-down method since intensity and subsequently heart rate generally drops as the participant slows down to learn new steps.  Therefore, beginner, intermediate and advanced level classes can be grouped further into two categories, complex and non-complex denoting the choreographic complexity.  

Leg muscles and arm movements will also add to intensity level.  Intensity level can be reduced by placing hands on the waist while continuing to step, by reducing the height of the step or by reducing the tempo of the music. Step heights of 4 inches provide intensity levels near those of walking briskly.  A step height of 12 inches exhibits near the same energy level as jogging at 5 to 7 mph.

Components of an Aerobic Class  

Aerobic classes are generally one hour in length.  The warm-up segment should last about 10 minutes and be composed of limbering type exercises to provide a core body temperature increase. Warming up the muscles is of prime importance in preventing injury due to the fact that they are more elastic. Lower body stretching should then be done for about 5 more minutes. 

Begin stepping using simple moves. The aerobic segment should last about 25 minutes and should increase gradually in intensity and complexity.  All moves should be less than full range until full warm-up is achieved.  Heart rate can be checked about halfway through the aerobic segment and is a good time for a water break.  The class should be adjusted according to the results of the heart rate check.  A cooldown segment follows the aerobic segment lasting about 5 minutes.  

Heart rate should then be checked again to assure a rate of less than 120 bpm.  Anyone still at a higher level should be instructed to continue marching or walking around the room.  Floor work should then begin and continue for the next 10 minutes followed by stretching for the last 5 minutes.  None of these times are cast in stone and may be adjusted accordingly.  For example, the instructor can reduce the aerobic segment to 20 minutes and increase the final stretching segment to 10 minutes.


Everyone should be able to find at least one aerobic training exercise that they like and feel comfortable with, or they can mix up different types. Aerobic training is crucial to optimal heart health. Doing it right and sticking to it will keep your heart healthy.

Remember, just because you can’t see your heart, that doesn’t mean it doesn’t need training. Aerobic training is a must! never mind about focusing on biceps and pecs, if your heart stops pumping, you stop pumping! Hopefully, after reading this you realize the importance of aerobic training in your program.

When it Comes to Motivation – It`s a Mind Battle!

When it Comes to Motivation - It`s a Mind Battle!

When it Comes to Motivation – It`s a Mind Battle! The mind battle is a popular motivational book I wrote, and one that will never be outdated, simply because our mind will always be our best friend or worst enemy. The question is can you control your mind, or does your mind control you? It is a mind battle.

Mind Battle #1

Get out of that bed!

The mind battle starts. It`s 4.00am and the alarm clock annoyingly awakes you, strange way to think about it really because it was you that set it to go off at that time! No one else, and of course it`s time to get out of bed and head to the gym…or is it?

As you rub your tired eyes wishing you were still asleep it`s time to play the daily early morning mind battle game between the two voices in your mind, those being Mr. Positive who likes to see you going to the gym and will encourage you all the way and Mr. Negative who doesn’t like to see you going to the gym and will talk you out of going all the way! So, who will win this daily mind battle today you wonder?

You awake with good intentions as usual, stare at the ceiling in disbelief for a few minutes as your groggy mind tries to clear enough to comprehend this situation, your mind then clears, then it’s time to prepare for this daily ritual. 

As you push the bed sheets off yourself Mr. Negative invades your mind for the first of many visits this morning and reminds you “It`s raining this morning, you know you`d rather stay in bed a couple more hours, so why don’t you just go back to sleep?” Good idea you’re thinking as you pull the sheets back over yourself. Thankfully, now it’s time for Mr. Positive to make his first appearance in your mind this morning telling you “What are you doing? It`s not raining in the gym and you don’t need any more sleep! Now get out of bed and hit those weights, no excuses!”  

Just as you push the sheets off yourself again you hear “But you don’t have to be at work till 7.00am, take it easy and sleep longer, you know you want to” says Mr. Negative as you agree and pull the sheets back over yourself again and close your eyes and attempt to fall asleep again. “That’s true, you don’t have to be at work till 7.00am which means you have plenty of time to have a great workout! Says Mr. Positive coming to the rescue once more.

You push the sheets off yourself again and place one leg out of bed seriously preparing to actually get ready this time. However, Mr. Negative has other ideas “Ok buddy, don’t do it, it`s too cold out there this morning, stay in bed longer, you can make up for it tomorrow” good thinking you agree, yes, you’ll go tomorrow instead, after all, you don’t want to over train do you! Mr. Positive brings you back to your senses yet again “Excuses! Excuses! Excuses! Now get out of bed and go to the gym, it’s not too cold in the gym!”

Now you’re actually out of bed, it took a while you but you finally made it, the most positive step so far this morning, which of course doesn’t go down too well with Mr. Negative who reminds you yet again “But just listen to that rain coming down! It’s a really terrible morning, tomorrow will be better, just go back to bed where you belong at this early hour, take it easy” you fall for it again and climb back into bed thinking yes it really is bad out there, think I’ll just go back to sleep a little longer. Mr. Positive comes back just in time before you fall asleep again “If you don’t get up and go to the gym it really will be a terrible morning! What are you waiting for? You know how much better you feel afterwards, now move it!”  

He’s right you’re thinking, it really does start your day in a positive manner and sets the tone for the rest of the day, and with that thought in mind you finally get out of bed, get ready and head out to the gym. Nothing can stop you now, right? …We`ll see.

Mind Battle #2

Go straight to the gym!

So, the first battle is over, that being getting out of bed and leaving the house. Congratulations! You’ve passed that test, but now the second battle now begins, that being will you actually make it to the gym? But of course, Mr. Negative hasn’t finished yet, he’s persistent, you have to give him that! 

As you’re driving to the gym now firmly focused on your training session you hear that familiar voice again “Take a break from the gym today, you know you’re hungry, so call at the fast food place and eat breakfast instead, you have to drive past it to get to the gym anyway!” That’s true, you are hungry and it is on the way to the gym, and you really don’t feel like your protein shake this morning, that has suddenly become very uninteresting and not appetizing in the slightest so you think you’ll stop and eat breakfast instead. As you’re about to turn into the diner Mr. Positive brings you back to your senses one last time this morning

“Wait! What are you doing? Eat that junk food and your whole day will be ruined! Keep going and get in that gym!”

Mr. Negative finally gives up knowing he`s been defeated once again. “Ok buddy you win this morning, but you haven’t heard the last from me! I’ll be back tomorrow morning to try and talk you out of it again!” Mr. Positive puts him in his place “Yes and you’ll be defeated again, so just disappear, you cannot win!” You drive straight past the diner and head to the gym with no more negative distractions, and with your healthy protein shake in hand you just know you’re about to have a great session that will result in you feeling positive the whole day at work and already know you can’t wait to hit the gym again next morning, and that’s even before you’ve started this morning’s workout! Your mindset has changed for the best, you’re now in a very positive frame of mind as you’re about to start your workout. 

Mind Battle #3

Put some effort in!

Ok, so you’re now inside the gym, now what? There’s one final battle to overcome now that’s what! The fact that you made it to the gym is very good, but it`s not enough. If you aren’t going to put any effort in you may as well have gone for that breakfast or indeed stayed in bed! You got this far so don’t waste your time by going through the motions. Make this a productive workout.

As you enter the gym you look around, not too many people in there at this early time, one guy is really going for it on the treadmill, one girl is pushing herself hard with the weights but everyone else is sat around looking at their cell phones or talking to their training partners or friends they have met in the gym, basically they look and act like they wish they were still in bed! Hardly a motivating environment this morning.

As you sit there looking around for inspiration before you begin your first set, you are distracted by one of the many TV`s showing the news and music videos, you’ll just watch the headlines before starting your workout, 10 minutes later you’re still watching the headlines! You can’t hear what they’re saying because of the music playing in the gym but it`s almost hypnotic to you at this early hour, you don’t realize just how distracted you are.

This creates a perfect situation for our old unwanted friend Mr. Negative to make a final comeback today, his voice creeps back into your mind! “What did I tell you? Told you to stay in bed, now you’re in here wasting your time! Leave now and go and eat that junk food, you know you’re hungry!” Yes, you think to yourself, you are hungry, might be a good idea to leave and come back tomorrow instead. But faithful as ever Mr. Positive pulls you out of it yet again! “Ok, you made it this far, now get to work! Just because everyone else in here is sat around doing nothing doesn’t mean you have to!” 

With one final attempt, sensing defeat this morning Mr. Negative reminds you “What about checking your phone for texts? You know you don’t want to miss any important texts” You are yet again distracted as you check your phone for texts, but there are none “Of course there aren’t any! Its 4.30am who is going to text you at this hour? Your friends who don’t workout are most likely asleep! Now put the phone away and get lifting these weights!” says Mr. Positive.

You know he’s right, and you begin to start your session for real and never think twice about questioning why you came here at such an early hour this morning. You know it’s hard but if it were that easy everyone would be in there and everyone would be in top shape, but they aren’t all in there and they all aren’t in top shape!

You have a great workout, then leave and head to work feeling very productive and very satisfied with yourself this morning. Mr. Positive reassures you “See what I told you? I knew you’d enjoy it. Why did you ever doubt me? See you tomorrow my friend”  Yes you will you say confidently, and without any further doubt in your mind there’s no more interference from Mr. Negative, he’s been beaten yet again and he’s already moved on to try and spoil someone else’s morning. 

The moral of this story is…Your mind is a very powerful thing, so don’t let the negative distract the positive because if you do I guarantee you will regret it later! This can apply to anything in life of course, but in this case, it’s about not talking yourself out of going to the gym early morning (or any other time for that matter). But if you really want something bad enough… No excuses! Just do it!

 Mind Battle help

Now, if after reading this somewhat amusing short story you can honestly say that none of this applies to you, then congratulations! You are lucky, and part of the minority who doesn’t need motivating and has the discipline and complete control over their mind when it comes to getting up early, getting out of bed and driving straight to the gym and having a productive work out without distraction or experiencing our old friend Mr. Negative trying to talk you out of going.

But, for the majority who can identify with this story let’s see what possible solutions there might be to help you overcome this early morning dilemma.

1)   Surround yourself as much as possible with people that understand your love of working out and agree with it, that’s not to say avoid people who don’t understand or don’t work out, but if your list of friends only consists of the latter you won’t find much support from them as they simply don’t understand the benefits you get from working out, and as a result the motivation required to get up early and workout simply won’t be there as readily as it would be if you surround yourself with like-minded gym friends. You are who you hang with, so beware negativity can rub off on you and possibly ruin what enthusiasm you have for working out. It’s a mind battle.

2)   Find a training partner who is as serious about working out as you are, that way you will both encourage, motivate and help one another be accountable to keep showing up creating productive workouts, you are more likely to want to go knowing your trainer partner is depending on and expecting you to be there. If your training partner isn’t serious about it and sees your training times as nothing more than an excuse to socialize then neither of you will benefit and never achieve anything. You can socialize after but try not to let your training sessions be used this way. Again, don’t look for excuses not to go. Obviously if you’re feeling unwell that’s an entirely different matter, but not to go because you simply can’t be bothered to make the effort to get out of bed is a complete waste of your time. It’s a mind battle.

3)   Consider hiring a certified personal trainer, not a cheap service of course, but a very sensible and positive one as they’ll keep you accountable. Most trainers will get you to pay in advance and if you don’t show up you lose your money! Before you think this is unfair just think of it this way, you are hiring the services of a professional who will keep you on track and get you to your goal, but if you aren’t serious about it you’re wasting their time and yours and of course your money, after all, it was you that asked for their help, they didn’t ask you. Would you like to be waiting on someone and they don’t show up? No, of course you wouldn’t. So bare that in mind before you commit to hiring a trainer. Bottom line is…you are expected to show up.It`s a mind battle.

4)   If you’re a beginner with very little experience the chances are, you’ll soon get bored with your attempts at working out simply because the time in the gym will be a frustrating one not really knowing what to do for the best. The gym to a beginner can give an intimidating feeling of being lost in an iron jungle! This is another great reason you might think about hiring a personal trainer, someone that knows what they’re doing and can design a program to best suit whatever your fitness needs are, also keeping your workouts and indeed your mind fresh and productive. Your time is valuable so don’t waste it struggling and wandering around lost in the iron jungle. It’s a mind battle.

5)   Nowadays we seem to be a society where 90% of the population can’t function without a cell phone permanently attached to their hand! Unless you absolutely must workout listening to music from your cell phone why even bring it into the gym? If you’re worried about leaving it in your car or locker then at least turn it off. Working out to music is one thing, but if all you’re doing is constantly checking for texts it’s a huge distraction your mind doesn’t need. Like in the story you just read if it`s early morning who would be texting you at that hour anyway? Your friends who don’t workout will still be asleep or getting ready for work and your early morning gym friends will be working out. After all, you’re most likely only going to be in the gym around one hour so give the cell phone a break, you can check your phone after your workout, but for the most part it’s just one more huge distraction your mind doesn’t need. Focus your mind on your workout, not the phone! It’s a mind battle.


The bottom line is this; The mind is a very powerful tool, it can work for you or against you, like your best friend or your worst enemy, the secret is to control it and make it work in your favor. Not always easy, but it can be done, I hope this book helps you conquer the mind battle.

If you enjoyed this sample, the kindle version can be purchased through this link

Attacked by Multiple People

Attacked by multiple people

Attacked by multiple people. One of the biggest dangers that you’ll face in an urban survival situation is an attack from multiple people. Anyone who’s serious about survival needs to be able to defend themselves and their loved ones from all types of violent attacks.

While having a firearm can certainly level the playing field, there are certain times and situations where you might be without one.

But you will always have your hands and feet with you, so knowing self-defense is something that will rapidly increase your chance of survival, even if attacked by multiple people.

So, what can you do when attacked by multiple people?

Facing an attack from one crazed lunatic can be a serious, even life-threatening situation; throw in a couple more psychopaths, and chaos doesn’t even begin to describe what you’re going to face.

Sadly, in today’s world, this scenario has become an increasingly real possibility. Even an innocent trip to the local grocery store can quickly go bad if not prepared to face the very real threats that are out there. When confronted with this type of attack, there are a couple of things you need to do.

Access the situation:

Do you have an escape route? This isn’t about looking cool, and it’s not the time to be Mr. Tough Guy. Survival does not mean fighting; it means escaping as safely as possible, if you have an escape route take it now.

Can you talk your way out of the situation? Talking your way out of an attack is more art than science and takes a considerable amount of street smarts to pull off. But there are a couple of things that you should keep in mind.

  • Telling a group that’s ready to attack to F**k off does nothing to defuse the situation. That may sound like common sense, but during a stressful situation people tend to either panic or let their ego take over and they overreact.
  • Remember you are probably dealing with people who are borderline insane and have nothing to lose. Stay calm & don’t show any fear. These types of people can smell fear, the moment they see it you’ve already lost the battle.
  • Apologize. Sometimes these morons are just trying to look cool in front of the group. Apologizing will allow them to look like the big tough guy, without having to pound in your skull. Might not be what you want to do, but if it saves your life, then it’s worth a try.

If you must fight, then here are some tips that may help

If you have no other options, and your life is in jeopardy, then you need to know how to protect yourself. The following actions should only be taken if your life is in immediate danger.

Watch the group’s body language – Watching the group’s body language will give you a clue to when they’re ready to attack. The following actions may be signs that they are getting ready to attack.

  • Watch for the assailant to do something like removing a hat or shirt.
  • Your attacker may start to make erratic movements such as rubbing his nose, pushing his hair back or clenching his teeth.
  • Watch the group’s eyes; they may start to glance at each other for cues on when to attack.
  • Watch the attacker’s fists; often times they will instinctively tighten them right before they’re ready to attack you.

Weapons – If you’re not carrying one, quickly scan your surroundings. Beer bottles, tree branches, garbage cans, bricks, and even the pen in your pocket can be used as improvised weapons during an emergency situation.

Psychology – Fighting a group does not always mean having to fight the whole group. In fact, your goal is to fight as few of them as possible. Instead of defeating each of their bodies, you must instead destroy their minds.

  • Your first strike must be spectacular, and very visible to the group.
  • The more visible the injury is the greater physiological effect it will have on the rest of the group.
  • The first few seconds of the fight are critical; if you can psychologically defeat the group now, many of them will scatter without ever throwing a punch.

Identify the leader – Who is the strongest link?  This person is your main threat and must be taken out first. Taking out the leader can destroy the group’s willingness to fight and is the first step to surviving an attack.  Remember, you want to create a strong visible injury that will make the group rethink its attack.

Seeing blood pouring out of someone’s nose is a very messy and intimidating sight and will make others think twice about carrying on with their intentions of attacking you.

Where to Attack – In a life or death situation, there are no rules.  Take out their eyes, break their kneecaps, jab them in the throat; do anything you can to win the battle. Your goal is to immobilize the attackers by any means available.

Remember, you are outnumbered, the odds are against you from the start and your life may be in serious danger. Do not hold back!

Disable an attacker quickly!

Remember, if you are attacked by one or more attackers, your priority is to ensure your safety, getting an aggressor or aggressors to let go of you does not end the situation. Many people have been hurt because they didn’t take strong enough measures allowing the attackers to have another go at them, you might not get so lucky second time around so don’t hold back. You may only get one chance to escape. Strike a vital area, and get out of there, quickly! Disable an attacker quickly!

One strike could save you from further danger and give you your best chance to end the situation, so hit hard and hit fast! You don’t have to wait till your attacker punches you before you think of striking them. Once you deliver that first blow do not stand back and see what your attacker decides to do next, keep on going until the threat is dealt with. Remember, while there is still a threat to your safety it is still self-defense and you must do whatever it takes to ensure your safety. Do not hold back with your first strike, make it count. 

You should never reach full extension of your arm before hitting a target with a punch. Many times you will see someone throw a punch with just enough power to reach the intended target almost like they’re afraid of hurting their hand so pull the punch short, the secret is to image your target behind the actual target you are striking ensuring maximum force when delivered, that way your strike is actually still accelerating as it goes into the target area rather than slowing down.

Vulnerable areas to aim for

Disable an attacker quickly! Here`s a few of the most vulnerable and vital areas on the human body, if you can strike out at any of these areas you will have a great chance of surviving any attack you might be facing. You may only get one chance to escape. Don’t waste that chance.

Eyes… Striking the eyes is a great way to escape from an attacker who is much stronger than yourself who has managed to get in close enough to grab you and has you in a bear hug. The technique should see your first two fingers spread and bent slightly ensuring you don’t break your own fingers if you happen to miss the target and strike your attackers forehead instead. Simply push your hand forward and upwards to your attacker’s eyes, aiming a little lower with your fingers sliding up the cheeks into the eye socket is far better than aiming too high.

This move will definitely make someone back off a few seconds if not longer stunning them, but don’t rely on this to end the situation, be prepared to follow it up with something else immediately then make your escape.

Groin… Kicking the groin if timed and aimed correctly can stop an attacker dead in his tracks. It can be a great way to keep your attacker at a distance before he gets in too close to you. However, if you attempt this kick from a distance be aware that if the distance is too far you might not generate enough power to stop your attacker and only land your kick with the tip of your toes should you even strike the desired target.

You are putting yourself in a position of being very off balance as your kicking leg is so extended making it very easy to miss and kick the stomach or leg instead allowing your attacker the chance to grab your leg and push you onto the ground, so don’t gamble everything on this one kick, be prepared to follow it up immediately. But if you do manage to time your kick with the distance perfectly this will end any threat you are under. No matter how big and strong someone is a kick to the groin will disable anyone long enough to ensure your escape and safety. 

Throat… Punching, chopping and squeezing the throat can stop an attacker immediately. Two of the main strikes are the web hand and the straight fingered strike, both are delivered with a hard-straight jabbing action. The web hand strike uses the `L` shape between the thumb and forefinger as a striking surface. The other common throat striking method is to ram straight stiff fingers into the throat.

Action against this particular area can be effectively carried out from a close in range or from a distance as very little pressure is needed to make an attacker back off. However, something to be mindful of is striking with too much force in this area could easily kill someone, so unless your life is in serious danger be very careful when attacking the throat. 

Ears… Attacking the ears is a great way to get yourself out of danger, especially if you should find yourself in some kind of close grab or bear hug type of situation where you simply don’t have enough space to generate any kind of effective strike. Striking the ears in a clapping motion will definitely disorientate your attacker giving you valuable seconds in which to make your escape to safety. 

Shins… The shins have a large number of nerve endings close to the surface of the skin and as such can be a very painful area to receive a kick. Also, the inner side of your foot can be used to slide down an attacker’s shin. Both the impact and pain caused by this action could well be enough to cause your attacker to lose his balance a few seconds and step back. If you happen to be wearing hard shoes, then kicking with your toes will be very effective. If you are grabbed from behind striking the shins is a great area to hit.

Fingers… The fingers offer a great target and are very useful when it comes to getting an attacker to release you from any hold, they may have you in. The beauty of this area is the fact there’s so many of them and pulling, twisting, bending or even breaking a finger can be extremely painful. Any of these actions should help give you the opportunity to escape.

Nose… The nose is a very delicate area and a solid strike against it can seriously knock the fight out of someone very quickly, it’s amazing how someone-even an attacker-can panic when they feel their own blood running out of their nose and into their mouth, the sensation and taste of which can really unsettle someone. A punch, chop or palm-strike are very effective on this particular area whether it be from a distance or close in. Definitely one of the best areas to attack.


Remember, you may only get one chance to escape. So, when attacking these or any other areas with your self-defense moves don’t make the mistake of stepping back and waiting to see what reactions your attackers are showing after you took action. Get out of there immediately! Vital areas are a must! Disable an attacker or attackers quickly!

One carefully aimed strike to a vital area is worth way more than many wild uncontrolled strikes. If you are attacked by multiple people, you won’t have time to waste your punches. Make them count!